Anatomical illustration showing nerves of the human body, Iran, 19th century, Wellcome Library, London.
Dürer, Albrecht, 1471-1528. Hierin̄ sind begriffen vier Bücher von menschlicher Proportion, 1528.
Houghton Library, Harvard University
"Copper doll" (jap.: dô ningyô). 1669, Japan. This very rare model of a human body has a skin crafted as a net-like structure, to allow the beholder to look inside the body. The organs are shown in a European naturalistic manner, not as energy-centers of organ-circles in the Asiatic manner. But, on the skin, acupuncture points are indicated in three colours. The net-like skin as well as the inner organs can be removed. The model stems from a time before the enforced opening of Japan to western influence. It is an extremely fine example of the trends for “western learning” of the early Edo-time. It bears witness to Japan’s early interest in foreign science, an interest that was upheld without giving up the country’s own, Asian-based scientific tradition. According to an inscription under the left foot, this copper model was made in 1669 after an idea of Iwamura (?) Gensai. It seems to have belonged to the personal physician of the daimyou of Kii-Wakayama. The model was produced in a series of which only two pieces remain. Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg, Inv.Nr. 29.77:1
Baroque Period Anatomical Wax Model
Venerina - Anatomical Venus 1780-1782
Marie Marguerite Bihéron
Anatomical Eve - 16-17th Century
Anatomical Venus - 19th c. Wax
Muscles of the Back, Jacques-Fabien Gautier-Dagoty, 1746